Base functions are a set of functions in the R programming language that are included in the base package, which is automatically installed and loaded when the R problem executes. These functions provide a wide range of functionality, including mathematical operations, statistical functions, data manipulation, and input/output operations.

In this article, I will explain some R base functions from the R Programming Language.

## R Mathematical Functions

R Base Package has a wide range of built-in mathematical functions that can be used to perform various types of mathematical operations, such as arithmetic, algebraic, trigonometric, and statistical functions.

The R Arithmetic operations are `+`

, `-`

, `*`

, `/`

, `^`

, `%/%`

, `%%`

and below are some algebraic functions.

R Mathematical Functions | Description |
---|---|

abs() | Calculate the absolute value of a numeric vector. |

sqrt() | Calculate the square root of a numeric vector. |

round() | Calculate the round of a numeric vector. |

ceiling() | Round numbers up to the nearest integer. |

floor() | Round numeric values to the nearest integer. |

sign() | Returns -1 for negative values, Returns 1 for positive values, And 0 for zero. |

exp() | Calculate the exponential value of a numeric vector. |

log(), log10() | Calculate the natural logarithm of a numeric vector. |

These are just a few examples, and there are many more mathematical functions available in R. You can find a complete list of mathematical functions in the R documentation or by typing `help(math)`

in the R console.

## R Statistical functions

R also has a wide range of built-in statistical functions that can be used to perform various types of statistical analyses, such as computing descriptive statistics, testing hypotheses, and fitting statistical models.

Besides R base functions, you can also use specialized packages in R, such as the `stats`

package, to access additional statistical functions.

Here are some examples of common statistical functions in R.

R Statistical functions | Description |
---|---|

mean() | |

median() | |

mode() | |

sd() | |

var() | |

quantile() | |

range() | |

max() | |

min() | |

sum() | |

prod() |

You can find a complete list of statistical functions in the R documentation or by typing `help(stats)`

in the R console.

## R Input / Output Functions

R Input/Output Functions | Description |
---|---|

read.csv() | |

read.table() | |

write.csv() | |

write.table() | |

cat() | |

scan() | |

readLines() | |

paste() | |

format() | |

print(), sprintf(), print() | |

source() |

## Data Manipulation

These data manipulation functions are pretty much used with Data Frames, Vectors, Lists, Matrices, and other R objects.

Base Functions | Description |
---|---|

with() | |

within() | |

head() | |

tail() | |

sort() | |

order() | |

unique() | |

duplicated() | |

which() | |

match() | |

table() | |

length() | |

nrow() | |

ncol() | |

attributes() | |

summary() | |

names() | |

is.na() | |

is.nan() | |

is.integer() | |

is.numeric() | |

is.complex() | |

is.character() | |

is.logical() | |

is.matrix() | |

is.array() | |

is.null() | |

is.data.frame() | |

is.vector() | |

is.list() | |

is.recursive() |

## Conclusion

In this article, you have learned different R base package functions. Functions from the R base package are automatically installed and available to use by default. These functions provide a wide range of functionality, including mathematical operations, statistical functions, data manipulation, and input/output operation

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