To rename a data object or a variable name in R, you can use two approaches, first change the existing variable to a new name, and second copy it to a new variable and delete/drop the existing one.
First, let’s create a DataFrame.
# Create dataframe df=data.frame(id=c(11,22,33), pages=c(32,45,33), name=c("spark","python","R"), chapters=c(76,86,11), price=c(144,553,321)) print(df)
Yields below output.
1. Rename Object or Variable in R
To rename an object or variable in R, just copy the data.frame variable to another variable by using the assignment operator (<- or =) and remove the existing variable using
1.1 Copy the Variable to Another
When you copy the DataFrame variable to another, R is smart enough not to make a copy of the variable instead the new variable just refers to the same memory address. You can use
tracemem() to get the address of the variable to verify.
# Copy to a new variable new_df <- df tracemem(new_df)
Yields below output.
Note that R refers to the same memory address for both variables and it creates a new copy in the memory if one of them is modified, After the update, the 2 objects are not identical anymore and they both have different memory addresses.
1.2 Remove the Existing or Old Object
Now we have DataFrame objects
new_df pointing to the same memory address, you can remove the existing old
df object, this completes the renamed variable.
# Remove old variable rm(df) tracemem(new_df)
Yields below output. Note that even after removing the old variable, the new variable
new_df still has the same memory. This proves that when you rename the variable, R doesn’t copy the data to a new variable instead it just drops the memory link to the old variable.
2. Rename Vector Object or Variable
Let’s see another example of how to rename a vector variable in R. The procedure would be exactly the same as data.frame.
# Create Vector using c() id <- c(10,11,12,13) # Copy to a new variable new_id <- id tracemem(new_id) # Remove old variable rm(id) tracemem(new_id)
3. Rename Object using mv()
As you learned creating the intermediate or temporary variable to rename is not a bad idea as it doesn’t copy the data however, if you wanted to rename the variable by not creating the temporary variable use
mv() function from
# Rename variable library(gdata) tracemem(df) "<0x15a5b6d78>" mv(from = "df", to = "df2") tracemem(df2) "<0x15a5b6d78>"
Observe that the output of
tracemem() function of both objects is the same. This mv() function internally assigns the object to the environment in scope and then removes the old object.
In this article, you have learned how to rename an R object or variable by using the
mv() function from the
gdata package and using the assignment operator to copy the object and delete the existing variable by using the
rm() function. When R makes a copy of an object it internally creates a “soft link” the object is not actually copied but simply linked to another name.
- dplyr Rename() – To Change Column Name
- How to Rename File in R? Using file.rename()
- How to Rename Multiple Columns in R?
- R – Rename All Dataframe Column Names
- Rename Columns With List in R
- How to Rename Column by Index Position in R?