### Spie Press Book

Field Guide to Atmospheric Optics, Second EditionFormat | Member Price | Non-Member Price |
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This second edition of the *Field Guide to Atmospheric Optics *contains several new developments in atmospheric propagation through the atmosphere since publication of the first edition (2004). Some of these new topics include the HAP *C _{n}*

^{2}profile model, ABCD ray matrices, beam-wander-induced scintillation, phase fluctuations, round-Earth model, analytic models for enhanced backscatter off of semi-rough targets, and non-Kolmogorov anisotropic models. As in the first edition, this Field Guide includes a review of classical Kolmogorov theory, Gaussian-beam waves in free space, and tractable atmospheric propagation models for the second-order and fourth-order field moments known, respectively, as the mutual coherence function and fourth-order cross-coherence function. Specializations of these general field moments allow the practitioner to easily calculate beam spreading, beam wander, spatial coherence (the Fried parameter), angle-of-arrival fluctuations, scintillation index, aperture-averaging effects, fade probabilities, bit error rates, and enhanced backscatter effects, among others. Knowledge of these mathematical models is important in many applications like imaging, free-space optical communications, and laser radar.

- Glossary of Symbols
**Atmospheric Structure**- Atmospheric Structure with Altitude
- Absorption and Scattering
- Transmittance, Optical Depth, and Visibility
- Meteorological Phenomena
**Kolmogorov Theory of Turbulence**- Classical Turbulence
- Velocity Fluctuations
- Temperature Fluctuations
- Optical Turbulence
- Structure Parameter and Inner Scale
- Power Spectrum Models
**Optical Wave Models in Free Space**- Paraxial Wave Equation
- Plane Wave and Spherical Wave Models
- Gaussian-beam Wave at the Transmitter
- Gaussian-beam Wave at the Receiver
- Hermite–Gaussian Beam Wave
- Laguerre–Gaussian Beam Wave
- Annular Beam
*ABCD*-Ray-Matrix Representation- Single Gaussian Lens
- Propagation Off of a Smooth Reflector
- Example: Free-Space Gaussian Beam
- Example:
*ABCD*Propagation **Atmospheric Propagation: Second-Order Statistics**- Second Moment of the Field
- Free-Space Mutual Coherence Function
- Rytov Approximation
- Mutual Coherence Function
- Mean Irradiance and Beam Spreading
- Beam Wander and Short-Term Beam Radius
- Beam Wander: Graphs
- Spatial Coherence Radius: Plane Wave
- Spatial Coherence Radius: Spherical Wave
- Spatial Coherence Radius: Gaussian-Beam Wave
- Graph of Spatial Coherence Radius and the Fried Parameter
- Angle of Arrival and Image Jitter
- Example: Spot Size and Beam Wander
- Angular and Temporal Frequency Spectra
**Atmospheric Propagation: Fourth-Order Statistics**- Fourth-Order Field Moment
- Rytov Approximation: Fourth-Order Specializations
- Scintillation Index: General Theory
- Scintillation Index: Plane Wave
- Scintillation Index: Spherical Wave
- Scintillation Index: Gaussian-Beam Wave
- Scintillation Index: Graphs
- Beam-Wander-Induced Scintillation Index
- Beam-Wander-Induced Scintillation Index: Graphs
- Aperture Averaging: Plane Wave
- Aperture Averaging: Spherical Wave
- Aperture Averaging: Gaussian-Beam Wave
- Example: Scintillation and Aperture Averaging
- Covariance Function: Plane Wave
- Covariance Function: Spherical Wave
- Covariance Function: Gaussian-Beam Wave
- Temporal Power Spectrum: Plane Wave
- Phase Fluctuations: Plane Wave
- Temporal Power Spectrum of Phase
**Imaging Systems and Adaptive Optics**- Fried Parameter and Greenwood Time Constant
- Point Spread Function and Modulation Transfer Function
- Spatial Resolution in Free Space
- Strehl Ratio and Image-Resolving Power
- Isoplanatic Angle and Point-Ahead Angle
- Zernike Polynomials and Wavefront Representation
- Zernike Polynomials for Atmospheric Imaging
- Modal Expansion and Aperture Filter Functions
- Zernike Tilt, Piston, and Angle-of-Arrival Jitter
- Tilt Anisoplanatism: Plane Wave
- Tilt Anisoplanatism: Spherical Wave
**Free-Space Optical Communication Systems**- FSOC Overview
- Direct-Detection System
- Performance Measure: Strehl Ratio
- Performance Measure: Optical Power
- Performance Measure: Signal-to-Noise Ratio
- Threshold Detection: Free Space
- Bit Error Rate
- Irradiance Probability Density Function (PDF) Models
- Statistical Models of Fade and BER
- Coherent Detection System
- Coherent Detection: Signal-to-Noise Ratio
**Laser Satellite Communication Systems**- Satellite Orbits
- HV (Hufnagel–Valley)
*C*_{n}^{2}Profile Model - HAP (Hufnagel–Andrews–Phillips)
*C*_{n}^{2}Profile Model - Comparison of
*C*_{n}^{2}Profile Models - Spatial Coherence Radius and the Fried Parameter
- Angle of Arrival and Isoplanatic Angle
- Irradiance Statistics: Downlink Path—Weak Fluctuations
- Irradiance Statistics: Downlink Path—Deep Turbulence
- Fade Statistics: Downlink Path
- Beam Size and Beam Wander: Uplink Path
- Scintillation Index: Uplink Path
- Uplink Scintillation Index: Graphs
- Round-Earth Model
- PDF Models for the Uplink Beam
- Untracked Uplink Beam: Graphs
- Tracked Uplink Beam: Graphs
- Fade Statistics: Uplink Path and Round-Earth Model
- Risk Analysis: Probability of Surge
**Laser Radar and Optical Remote Sensing**- Basic Radar Principles
- Statistical Characteristics of Echo Beam
- Gaussian-Beam Parameters for a Smooth Target
- Smooth Target: Mean Irradiance and Beam Spot Size
- On-Axis BSAE: Spherical Wave
- Mirror BSAE: Weak Fluctuations
- Retroreflector BSAE: Weak Fluctuations
- BSAE: Graphs
- Retroreflector BSAE: Deep Turbulence
- Retroreflector BSAE: Deep-Turbulence Graphs
- Semi-rough Target: Free-Space Analysis
- Semi-rough Target BSAE: Weak Fluctuations
- Diffuse Target BSAE: Weak Fluctuations
- Spatial Coherence Radius: Weak Fluctuations
- Far-Field Scintillation Index: Weak Fluctuations
- Far-Field Scintillation Index: Deep Turbulence
- Diffuse Target: Scintillation Index: I
- Diffuse Target: Scintillation Index: II
**Non-Kolmogorov Atmospheric Turbulence**- Non-Kolmogorov Anisotropic Structure
- Non-Kolmogorov Spectral Models
- Generalized Rytov Variance
- Mean Irradiance and Beam Spot Size
- Spatial Coherence Radius
- Scintillation Index: Weak Fluctuations
- Scintillation Index: Graphs
- Equation Summary
- Bibliography
- Index

#### Preface to Second Edition

There have been a number of new model developments in
atmospheric propagation of a laser beam since the
publication of the first edition of this *Field Guide to
Atmospheric Optics*, many of which are included in this
second edition. Some of the new mathematical models were
introduced in *Laser Beam Propagation through Random
Media* by L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips (SPIE 2005), but
others have been developed since the publication of that
text owing to the fact that this is still an active area of
research.

• Connection between visibility and transmittance

• HAP *C _{n}*

^{2}profile model

• Annular beams

• ABCD ray matrices

• New expressions for beam wander

• Angular and temporal frequency spectra

• Inclusion of inner-/outer-scale effects in the scintillation index

• Beam-wander-induced scintillation

• Phase fluctuations

• Temporal power spectrum of phase

• Performance measures of FSOC systems

• Round-Earth model

• New probability density function models for tracked and untracked uplink paths

• New models for EBS from smooth and semi-rough targets

• Non-Kolmogorov anisotropic models

**Larry C. Andrews**

*Professor Emeritus
Townes Laser Institute
CREOL, College of Optics
University of Central Florida*

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